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values

Five, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on an attainment of social status as well as control over other people and resources.

The scale assesses the degree to which a person believes that the number and quality of a person's possessions are necessary to achieve happiness in life. The original version of the scale was composed of five, five-point Likert-type statements. Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, were subsequently developed and tested by Richins (2004).

The degree to which a person believes that the number and quality of a person's possessions are indicators of success in life is measured using five point Likert-type statements. Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, have been developed and tested.

The scale is composed of Likert-type statements intended to capture the emphasis a person places on material things and the belief that those things bring happiness.

Twenty, seven-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person expresses tendencies to control others through aggressive, manipulative, and even devious means in order to achieve personal or organizational objectives. In marketing research, the scale has mostly been used with marketing professionals in the U.S. (e.g., Ho et al. 1997; Hunt and Chonko 1984). See Wirtz and Kum (2004) for a use of the scale with a mixture of Singaporean workers, professionals, and ultimate consumers.

The scale is intended to measure the extent to which a person believes that buying and owning things are important in his/her life.  The original version of the scale has seven, five-point Likert-type items.  Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, have been developed and tested as well.

Thirteen, seven point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a person expresses beliefs that are consistent with honest behavior. The scale as a whole is not specific to any particular object or time but appears to describe one's general behavior. Wirtz and Kum (2004) referred to the scale as morality.

The seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the value a person places on having a family and spending time with them.

A person’s attitude toward the appropriateness of purchasing American-made products versus those manufactured in other countries is measured using a seventeen-item, seven-point Likert-type scale. The scale was called CETSCALE (consumers' ethnocentric tendencies) by its creators, Shimp and Sharma 1987. The scale has been used in a variety of languages and countries. A ten-item version of the scale has been used in some studies and a revised version of the scale was used by Herche (1992).

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure the value placed by a person on self-restraint and self-transcendence in order to minimize social disruption.