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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale is composed of nine opposing phrases with a six-point response format that attempt to measure the degree of difficulty a person believes he/she would experience in making a particular choice. Since the items are stated hypothetically, the scale is not exactly a measure of post-purchase dissonance. The scale was called value conflict by Burroughs and Rindfleisch (2002) but the items seem to be general enough for use in a variety of situations where the researcher is concerned about how much conflict consumers imagine there would be in making a particular decision.

The value placed by a person on the welfare of those people with whom one is in frequent personal contact is measured using nine, nine-point statements.

Six statements with seven-point Likert-type response formats are used to measure the value-expressive functional base of a product-related attitude. This function has to do with a product facilitating one's expression of central values and self-identity to others.

Five, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on personal success with an emphasis on demonstration of competence in accordance with social standards so as to gain social approval.

The Likert-type scale is composed of three, seven-point statements measuring the respondent's attitude about the similarity of values and beliefs held in common by a company and its advertising agency with an emphasis on how they treat their customers and their employees. The scale was called goal conflict by Spake et al. (1999).

Three, six-point Likert-type items are used to assess a person's opinion of advertising in general as it relates to its portrayal of homosexuals.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type phrases that appear to capture the degree to which a person places importance on socially-related values such as belongingness and friendly relationships. Shim and Eastlick (1998) referred to this scale as social affiliation.

The scale is composed of several phrases that appear to capture the degree to which a person places importance on values related directly to self such as self-respect, self-fulfillment, and a sense of accomplishment. Shim and Eastlick (1998) referred to this scale as self-actualizing.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's attitude about an organization's adherence to unwritten rules of social conduct with the emphasis on how well it supports families and their values.

The scale is composed of twelve Likert-type items and is purported to measure one's world view as it pertains to the environment and man's relationship to it. Response to most of the items appears to hinge on whether humans should adapt to the environment or rather that it is appropriate to use the environment as mankind desires. The scale was referred to as the New Environmental Paradigm by its creators (Dunlap and Van Liere 1978) because this view was seen as contrasting with the more dominant paradigm of the time that was not particularly pro-environment.