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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale is composed of three, five-point semantic differentials that measure the degree to which a person considers a particular slogan to be positive and valuable.

A person’s tendency to express and verbalize his/her thoughts and feelings is measured with eight items.

A person's expressed difficulty in understanding service agents who are viewed as having foreign accents is measured using four statements.

One's preference for the use of the face and body to physically express positive emotions in communication is measured with five, six-point Likert type items.  The focus of the scale is on others' nonverbal expression of emotion.  A person's own level of physical expressiveness is not measured.

The likelihood of a customer reacting to a service failure by using facial expressions to convey his/her anger to the service employee(s) is measured with four, five-point items.

The scale uses five, five-point items to measure the likelihood of a customer reacting to a service failure by expressing his/her anger to the service employee(s) in words (what was said and how it was said).

The extent to which a communication event at a website is characterized by information other than in verbal form is measured using four, seven-point items.

The full version of this scale has twenty-two statements that measure a person's preference for processing information in either a verbal or a visual modality. The measure was referred to as the Style of Processing (SOP) scale by Childers, Houston, and Heckler (1985).

Six semantic differential items are used to measure the amount, complexity, and range of cognitive complexity evoked by an advertisement.  Half of the items are meant to tap into imagistic responses while the other half represent discursive responses.

Multiple semantic differentials are used to assess the degree to which an ad (or the message portion of it) is viewed as being rational and useful.