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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

visual

Three, seven-point Likert items are used to measure how visually attractive and appealing a product’s design is considered to be.

A person’s general attitude about a logo is measured with three, five-point semantic differentials.

With three, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes a particular website has a visually pleasing design.

The degree to which a person reports being able to “see” in his/her mind a particular object or action is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

With three, seven-point items, the scale measures a person’s tendency to notice and attend to sounds, smells, and visual aspects of his/her nearby surroundings.

The scale has ten items that measure a person’s desire to eat in response to “external” stimuli (non-hunger related), with an emphasis on exposure to the sights and smells of food.

The scale has five semantic differentials that measure how attractive and appealing a product appears to be.  Although the scale was made for use with a product, it seems to be amenable for use with a wide variety of objects.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type items that measure how appealing and striking a product appears to be.  Based on the current phrasing of the items, the emphasis is on the visual aspects of a product’s aesthetics.

The scale has four, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the visual clarity and intensity of a particular advertisement.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes a particular advertisement is visually appealing.