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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

visual

The scale uses three, seven-point uni-polar items to measure the degree to which a person believes a particular object is nice looking.  The scale is general in the sense that the items refer to visual beauty overall rather than to a particular type of prettiness.

The clarity with which a person has a picture in his/her mind of a particular object or event is measured with three, seven-point items.

This seven-point scale measures how much a consumer believes one smartphone is similar to another phone on four characteristics related to ease of use.

The scale measures the extent to which a visual pattern, such as in a print advertisement, is interpreted as indicating motion, particularly forward movement.  Four, seven-point semantic differential phrases compose the scale.

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how much a person visually imagined shopping in a store as well as picturing possible sets of associated products that could be used together.

The scale measures the degree to which a customer of a branded product or store engages in conspicuous behaviors that can be visually observed by others in order to communicate he/she is a customer of the brand.  Three, seven-point Likert-type items compose the scale. 

How much a person was able to see the visual aspects of a hologram is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

How unique and noticed a person believes he/she would feel with a certain product is measured with three, seven-point items.

How likeable and aesthetically pleasing an object appears to be is measured with three, nine-point semantic differentials.  The items might be used with non-visual objects, such as with sounds, but they seem most appropriate for use when the objects are being rated visually.

Six, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person is easily able to imagine how furniture would look in a dwelling (house or apartment).