You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your research. Search Now


The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University



Want to know what is going on at Marketing Scales?  Read below about the newest books that have been published and other news of interest. 

This Week's Featured Scales

Environmentalism has become a major force in the world of politics, energy, marketing, among others.  It is no wonder then that the field of social science called Consumer Behavior has been affected as well.  Scholars are investigating what consumers think about the environment and how that affects what they do.  In conducting this research, one of the key tools used by researchers is the multi-item scale because of its ability to precisely measure psychological constructs of interest.  In my collection and review of multi-item scales, I have gathered dozens of multi-item measures that have to do with environmentalism (broadly defined).  Four new scales used recently in scholarly research are featured this week at  These measures deal with how much people care for the environment and how that concern is affecting their emotions and behavior.  The names assigned to these scales are Connectedness with Nature, Disposal Guilt, Environmentalism (Crisis Concern), and Environmentalism (Purchasing Behavior)If you want to know more about these measures, brief descriptions will be on the homepage for a couple for weeks and the full reviews (including the items and who used them) are now permanent documents in the repository here at the website.

Loosey-Goosey Measurement of Purchase Intention

If a consumer says she is willing to buy a product, is that an expression of purchase intention? If a researcher uses a summated scale that includes items such as I like the product and I want to buy the product, is that a measure of purchase intention? If a marketer wants to estimate demand for a product concept that might be produced in the future, is a purchase intention scale the proper measure to use? My answer to these questions is NO! For my reasons, read the latest pet-peeve blog at the Office of Scale Research.

Scales Library Reaches Another Milestone!

The library database here at now contains over 3,800 reviews of multi-item scales.  This is a unique database; nothing like this exists in academia or industry with respect to measures with known reliability for use in consumer behavior research.  The majority of the scales in the database have been reported in at least one of the nine published volumes of the Marketing Scales Handbook series but there are a growing number of new scales that are being added almost every week that have not been in any of the books.  (They are expected to be in Volume 10 when it is finished in 2019.)  Further, even though Volumes 1 to 4 are no longer available, reviews of the scales they had which dealt with consumer research are available in the database.  Finally, the reviews published in all previous volumes are updated in the database as significant new information becomes available.

The bottom line is that, as useful as any one volume in the series can be, only the library contains all of the scales and has the most up-to-date information.

New Book Released!

Volume 9 of the Marketing Scales Handbook series has been published!  If you are familiar with any of the past volumes, this book is generally similar in scope but the material is completely new.  None of the scales in Volume 9 were reviewed in the previous books.  Volume 9 has reviews of 433 scales, more than any book since Volume 6.   In terms of coverage, there are scales related to typical topics such as brands, advertising, stores, purchasing, and pricing.  Additionally, there are new scales for some "smaller" topics that were less covered (if at all) in the previous books such as environmentalism, service dominant orientations, symbolic embeddedness, word-of-mouth activity, switching costs, product installations, place attachment, interactions with employees, and sports.  If you are interested, read more about Volume 9 and download the free sample.

For purchases by individuals, Volume 9 is only available as a paperback.  Initially, it will only be available from or (the printing company).