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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Animosity (Economic)

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a person's negative feelings towards a specified country because of its economic power over one's own country.