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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Animosity (Economic)

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a person's negative feelings towards a specified country because of its economic power over one's own country.