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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Brand Foreignness

The degree to which a brand is viewed as being associated with a country other than one's own country is measured in this scale using four, seven-point semantic differentials.