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Scale Reviews

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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Brand Values (Openness)

The four, seven-point unipolar items are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that a particular brand possesses human-like characteristics associated with self-direction and stimulation.