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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person views him/herself as being loving and caring. This is intended as a trait measure rather than a state measure.