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Testimonial

I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Effort to Receive Sales Promotion Benefit (Pre-purchase)

The three item scale measures the extent to which a consumer believes that a lot of effort was spent before a purchase in activity intended to help qualify for the benefit of some type of sales promotion, e.g., collecting coupons to receive price discounts.