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Scale Reviews

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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Ethnocentrism (Ethnic)

The scale is composed of four items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person expresses a preference for products produced in his/her country by a particular ethnic group, probably the dominant one, rather than products that were produced domestically but by another ethnic group, probably a minority.