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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

Helplessness

Three, seven-point descriptors are used to assess the lack of control and feeling of impotence a consumer has experienced in some situation. In the study by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995), the stimulus that respondents were reacting to was a car salesperson.