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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Hostility Toward the Brand

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the desire to engage in behaviors that would damage a brand as well as stores and employees that sell the product.