You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your research. Search Now

Testimonial

The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

Readings

Articles and books are suggested below that one could consult when trying to better understand psychometrics and related issues. While the emphasis in the list is on literature from the academic discipline of marketing, many of the references are from other fields, particularly psychology.

  • American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), & National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) (1999), Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association.
  • Anderson, James C. and David W. Gerbing (1982), “Some Methods for Respecifying Measurement Models to Obtain Unidimensional Construct Measurement,” Journal of Marketing Research, 19 (November), 453-460.
  • __________ and __________ (1988), "Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach," Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423.
  • Bagozzi, Richard P. and Youjae Yi (1991), "Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices in Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (March), 426-439.
  • Ballard, Rebecca, Michael D. Crino, & Stephen Rubenfeld (1988), "Social Desirability Response Bias and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale," Psychological Reports, 63, 227-237.
  • Baumgartner, Hans and Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp (2001), “Response Styles in Marketing Research: A Cross-National Investigation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (May), 143-156.
  • _________ and __________ (2006), “An Extended Paradigm for Measurement Analysis of Marketing Constructs Applicable to Panel Data,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (August), 431-442.
  • Bergkvist, Lars and John R. Rossiter (2007), “The Predictive Validity of Multiple-Item Versus Single-Item Measures of the Same Constructs,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44 (2), 175-184.
  • __________ and Tobias Langner (2017), "Construct Measurement in Advertising Research," Journal of Advertising, 46 (1), 129-140.
  • Bocker, Franz (1988), "Scale Forms and Their Impact on Ratings' Reliability and Validity." Journal of Business Research, 17 (August), 15-26.
  • Bollen, Kenneth and Richard Lennox (1991), "Conventional Wisdom on Measurement: A Structural Equation Perspective," Psychological Bulletin, 110 (2), 305-314.
  • Boyle, Gregory J. (1991), "Does Item Homogeneity Indicate Internal Consistency or Item Redundancy in Psychometric Scales?" Personality & Individual Differences, 12 (3), 291- 294.
  • Bradlow, Eric T. and Gavan J. Fitzsimons (2001), “Subscale Distance and Item Clustering Effects in Self-Administered Surveys: A New Metric,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (May), 254-261.
  • Bruner II, Gordon C. (1998), “Standardization & Justification: Do Aad Scales Measure Up?,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 20 (Spring), 1-18.
  • __________ (2003), "Combating Scale Proliferation," Journal of Targeting, Measurement & Analysis, 11 (4), 362-372.
  • __________ and Paul J. Hensel (1993), "Multi-Item Scale Usage in Marketing Journals: 1980 to 1989," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21 (Fall), 339-344.
  • Campbell, Donald T. and Donald W. Fiske (1959), "Convergent Validity and Discriminant Validity by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix," Psychological Bulletin, 56 (March), 81- 105.
  • Carmines, Edward G. and Richard A. Zeller (1979), Reliability and Validity Assessment, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Churchill, Gilbert A., Jr. (1979), "A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs," Journal of Marketing Research, 16 (February), 64-73. *
  • __________ (1992), "Better Measurement Practices are Critical to Better Understanding of Sales Management Issues," Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 12 (Spring), 73-80.
  • __________ and J. Paul Peter (1984), "Research Design Effects on the Reliability of Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Marketing Research, 21 (November), 360-375.
  • Clark, Lee Anna and David Watson (1995), "Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale Development," Psychological Assessment, 7 (3), 309-319.
  • Comrey, Andrew L (1988), "Factor Analytic Methods of Scale Development in Personality and Clinical Psychology," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56 (October), 754-761.
  • Cortina, Jose M. (1993), "What is Coefficient Alpha? An Examination of Theory and Applications," Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 (1), 98-104.
  • Cox III, Eli P. (1980), "The Optimal Number of Response Alternatives For a Scale: A Review," Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (November), 407-422.
  • Cronbach, Lee J. (1951), "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests," Psychometrika, 16 (September), 297-334.
  • __________ (1955), "Construct Validity in Psychological Tests," Psychological Bulletin, 52 (July), 281-302.
  • Crowne, Douglas P. and David Marlowe (1960), "A New Scale of Social Desirability Independent of Psychopathology," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24 (August), 349- 354.
  • Dawes, John (2008), "Do Data Characteristics Change According to the Number of Scale Points Used?" International Journal of Market Research, 50 (1), 61-77.
  • De Jong, Martijn G., Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp, and Jean-Paul Fox (2007), "Relaxing Measurement Invariance in Cross-National Consumer Research Using a Hierarchical IRT Model," Journal of Consumer Research, 34 (2), 260-278.
  • __________, __________, and Bernard P. Veldkamp (2009), "A Model for the Construction of Country-Specific Yet Internationally Comparable Short-Form Marketing Scales," Marketing Science, 28 (July/August), 674-689.
  • __________, __________, __________, and Hans Baumgartner Hans (2008), "Using Item Response Theory to Measure Extreme Response Style in Marketing Research: A Global Investigation," Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (1), 104-115.
  • de Langhe, Bart, Stefano Puntoni, Daniel Fernandes, and Stijn M.J.van Osselaer (2011) “The Anchor Contraction Effect in International Marketing Research,” Journal of Marketing Research, 48 (2), 366-380.
  • DeVellis, Robert F. (2003), Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Diamantopoulous, Adamantios and Heidi M. Winklhofer (2001), “Index Construction with Formative Indicators: An Alternative to Scale Development,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (May), 269-277.
  • Diamantopoulos, Adamantios, Marko Sarstedt, Christoph Fuchs, Petra Wilczynski, and Sebastian Kaiser (2012), "Guidelines for Choosing Between Multi-item and Single-item Scales for Construct Measurement: A Predictive Validity Perspective," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40 (3), 434-449.
  • Didow Jr., Nicholas M., Kevin Lane Keller, Hiram C. Barksdale, Jr., and George R. Franke (1985), "Improving Measure Quality by Alternating Least Squares Optimal Scaling," Journal of Marketing Research, 22 (February), 30-40.
  • Edris, Thabet A. and A. Meidan (1990), "On the Reliability of Psychographic Research: Encouraging Signs for Measurement Accuracy and Methodology in Consumer Research," European Journal of Marketing, 24 (3), 23-41.
  • Embretson, Susan E., Steve Reise, Steven Paul Reise (2000), Item Response Theory for Psychologists, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Ewing, Michael T., Thomas Salzberger, and Rudolf R. Sinkovics (2005), "An Alternative Approach to Assessing Cross-Cultural Measurement Equivalence in Advertising Research," Journal of Advertising, 34 (1), 17-36.
  • Finn, Adam and Ujwal Kawande (1997), “Reliability Assessment and Optimization of Marketing Measurement,” Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (May), 262-275.
  • __________ and __________ (2004), "Scale Modification: Alternative Approaches and Their Consequences," Journal of Retailing, 80 (1), 37-52.
  • Flynn, Leisa Reinecke and Dawn Pearcy (2001), "Four Subtle Sins in Scale Development: Some Suggestions for Strengthening the Current Paradigm," International Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (4), 409-423.
  • Furse, David H. and David W. Stewart (1982), “Standards For Advertising Copytesting: A Psychometric Interpretation,” Journal of Advertising, 11 (4), 30-38, 76.
  • Gerbing, David W. and James C. Anderson (1988), "An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Uni-dimensionality and Its Assessment," Journal of Marketing Research, 25 (May), 186-192. *
  • Geuens, Maggie and Patrick De Pelsmacker (2017), "Planning and Conducting Experimental Advertising Research and Questionnaire Design," Journal of Advertising, 46 (1),  83-100.
  • Gilmore, Audrey and Rosalind McMullan (2009), "Scales in Services Marketing Research: A Critique and Way Forward," European Journal of Marketing, 43 (5/6), 640-651.
  • Givon, Moshe M. and Zur Shapira (1984), "Response to Rating Scales: A Theoretical Model and Its Application to the Number of Categories Problem," Journal of Marketing Research, 21 (November), 410- 419.
  • Green, Paul E. and Vithala R. Rao (1970), "Rating Scales and Information Recovery: How Many Scales and Response Categories to Use?" Journal of Marketing, 34 (July), 33-39.
  • Gursoy, Dogan, Muzaffer Uysal, Ercan Sirakaya-Turk, Yuksel Ekinci, and Seyhmus Baloglu (2015), Handbook of Scales in Tourism and Hospitality Research, CABI, Wallingford, UK.
  • Heeler, Roger M. and Michael L. Ray (1972), "Measure Validation in Marketing," Journal of Marketing Research, 9 (November), 361-370.
  • Henseler, Jörg, Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt (2015), "A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-based Structural Equation Modeling," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43 (1), 115-135.
  • Herche, Joel, Brian Engelland (1996), “Reversed-Polarity Items and Scale Unidimensionality,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(4), 366-374.
  • Jacoby, Jacob (1978), "Consumer Research: A State of the Art Review," Journal of Marketing, 42 (April), 87- 96.
  • Jarvis, Cheryl Burke, Scott B. MacKenzie, and Philip M. Podsakoff (2003), "A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (September), 199-218.
  • John, George and Deborah L. Roedder (1981), Reliability Assessment: Coefficients Alpha and Beta," American Marketing Association Educators' Proceedings, 354-357.
  • Komorita, S. S. (1963), "Attitude Content, Intensity, and the Neutral Point on a Likert Scale," Journal of Social Psychology, 61 (December), 327-334.
  • Little, Todd D., Ulman Lindenberger, and John R. Nesselroade (1999), "On Selecting Indicators for Multivariate Measurement and Modeling With Latent Variables: When 'Good' Indicators Are Bad and 'Bad' Indicators Are Good," Psychological Methods, 4 (2), 192-211.
  • Martin, Warren S. (1973), "The Effects of Scaling on the Correlation Coefficient: A Test of Validity." Journal of Marketing Research, 10 (August): 316-318.
  • __________ (1978), "Effects of Scaling on the Correlation Coefficient: Additional Considerations." Journal of Marketing Research, 15 (May): 304-308.
  • MacKenzie, Scott B. and Philip M. Podsakoff (2012), "Common Method Bias in Marketing: Causes, Mechanisms, and Procedural Remedies," Journal of Retailing, 88 (4), 542-555.
  • Mowen, John C. and Kevin E. Voss (2008), "On Building Better Construct Measures: Implications of a General Hierarchical Model," Psychology & Marketing, 25 (6), 485-505.*
  • Netemeyer, Richard G., William O. Bearden, and Subhash Sharma (2003), Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.*
  • Nowlis, Stephen M., Barbara E. Kahn and Ravi Dhar (2002), "Coping with Ambivalence: The Effect of Removing a Neutral Option on Consumer Attitude and Preference Judgements," Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (December), 319-334.
  • Nunnally, Jum C. and Ira H. Bernstein (1994), Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw- Hill.*
  • Peter, J. Paul (1979), "Reliability: A Review of Psychometric Basics and Recent Marketing Practices," Journal of Marketing Research, 16 (February), 6-17.
  • __________ (1981), "Construct Validity: A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices," Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (May), 133-145.
  • __________ and Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. (1986), "Relationships Among Research Design Choices and Psychometric Properties of Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Marketing Research, (February), 1-10.
  • Peterson, Robert A. (1994), "A Meta-Analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha," Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (September), 381-391.
  • Reise, Steven P., Keith F. Widaman, and Robin H. Pugh (1993), "Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory: Two Approaches for Exploring Measurement Invariance," Psychological Bulletin, 114 (3), 552-566.
  • Rentz, Joseph O. (1988), "An Exploratory Study of the Generalizability of Selected Marketing Measures," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16 (Spring), 141-150.
  • Revelle, William (1979), "Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the Internal Structure of Tests," Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14 (January), 57-74.
  • Rosmalen, Joost van, Hester van Herk and Patrick J.F. Groenen (2010), “Identifying Response Styles: A Latent-Class Bilinear Multinomial Logit Model,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47 (1), 157-172.
  • Rossiter, John R. (2002), "The C-OAR-SE Procedure for Scale Development in Marketing," International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19 (4), 305-335.
  • Santor, Darcy A. and J. O. Ramsay (1998), "Progress in the Technology of Measurement: Applications of Item Response Models," Psychological Assessment, 10 (4), 345-359.
  • Sarstedt, Marko, Adamantios Diamantopoulos, and Thomas Salzberger (2016) “Should We Use Single Items? Better Not," Journal of Business Research, 69 (8), 3199–3203.
  • Sarstedt, Marco, Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Thomas Salzberger, and Petra Baumgartner (2016), "Selecting Single Items to Measure Doubly-Concrete Constructs: A Cautionary Tale," Journal of Business Research, 69 (8), 3159–3167.
  • Schuman, Howard and Stanley Presser (1996), Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording, and Context, Newbury Park, CA. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Singh, Jagdip, Roy D. Howell, and Gary K. Rhoads (1990), "Adaptive Designs for Likert- Type Data: An Approach for Implementing Marketing Surveys," Journal of Marketing Research, 27 (August), 304- 321.
  • Spector, Paul E. (1992), Summated Ratings Scale Construction, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Stanton, Jeffrey M., Evan F. Sinar, William K. Balzer, and Patricia C. Smith (2002), “Issues and Strategies for Reducing the Length of Self-Report Scales,” Personnel Psychology, 55 (1), 167–94.
  • Steenbergen, Mario R. (2000), “Item Similarity in Scale Analysis,” Political Analysis, 8 (March), 261-283.
  • Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M. and Hans C.M. van Trijp (1991), "The Use of LISREL in Validating Marketing Constructs," International Journal of Research in Marketing, 8, 283-299.
  • Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M., Martijn G. de Jong and Hans Baumgartner (2010), “Socially Desirable Response Tendencies in Survey Research,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47 (2), 199-214.
  • Strahan, Robert and Kathleen C. Gerbasi (1972), "Short, Homogeneous Versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale," Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28 (April), 191-193.
  • Swain, Scott D, Danny Weathers, and Ronald W. Niedrich (2008), "Assessing Three Sources of Misresponse to Reversed Likert Items," Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (1), 116-131.
  • Traub, Ross E. (1994), Reliability for the Social Sciences: Theory and Applications, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Voorhees, Clay M., Michael K. Brady, Roger Calantone, and Edward Ramirez (2016), "Discriminant Validity Testing in Marketing: An Analysis, Causes for Concern, and Proposed Remedies," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44 (1), 119-134.
  • Weijters, Bert and Hans Baumgartner (2012), "Misresponse to Reversed and Negated Items in Surveys: A Review," Journal of Marketing Research, 49 (5), 737–747.
  • Weijters, Bert, Maggie Geuens, and Hans Baumgartner (2013), “The Effect of Familiarity with the Response Category Labels on Item Response to Likert Scales,” Journal of Consumer Research, 40 (2), 368-381.
  • Weijters, Bert, Niels Schillewaert, and Maggie Geuens (2008), "Assessing Response Styles Across Modes of Data Collection," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (3), 409-422.
  • Wong, Nancy, Aric Rindfleisch, and James E. Burroughs (2003), "Do Reverse-Worded Items Confound Measures in Cross-Cultural Consumer Research? The Case of the Material Values Scale," Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (June), 72-91.

* These are the most important readings on the list in terms of understanding the process of developing a multi-item scale. The others are alternative readings or provide more detailed information on related issues.