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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Machiavellianism

Twenty, seven-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person expresses tendencies to control others through aggressive, manipulative, and even devious means in order to achieve personal or organizational objectives. In marketing research, the scale has mostly been used with marketing professionals in the U.S. (e.g., Ho et al. 1997; Hunt and Chonko 1984). See Wirtz and Kum (2004) for a use of the scale with a mixture of Singaporean workers, professionals, and ultimate consumers.