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Scale Reviews

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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


Twenty, seven-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person expresses tendencies to control others through aggressive, manipulative, and even devious means in order to achieve personal or organizational objectives. In marketing research, the scale has mostly been used with marketing professionals in the U.S. (e.g., Ho et al. 1997; Hunt and Chonko 1984). See Wirtz and Kum (2004) for a use of the scale with a mixture of Singaporean workers, professionals, and ultimate consumers.