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Testimonial

I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Personal Source Confidence

This scale is a seven-item, seven-point measure of the amount of confidence a consumer has in "personal independent" sources (relative or friend) as well as "personal advocate" sources (store manager or employee).