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Scale Reviews

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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Powerlessness with the Brand

A consumer’s belief that he/she does not have the ability to sway a brand and its employees toward his/her stance with regard to some issue or conflict is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.