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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

Powerlessness (State)

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures how much a person believes that, in a particular past situation, other people had a lot of power over him/her.