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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Psychological Distance (Consumer-Retailer)

Using four, nine-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a consumer considers a retailer to be close and tangible rather than distant and abstract.  As an example of the construct, a retailer that only has a website would likely be viewed by consumers as more psychologically distant than a brick-and-mortar store that is physically close to them.