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Scale Reviews

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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Sadness

Eight, seven-point, one word descriptors are used to assess the strength of the sadness-related emotions reported by a person as a result of exposure to some stimulus. Using the same items but slightly different instructions, another version of the scale measured emotions depicted by someone else or in something else. The stimuli examined by Williams and Aaker (2002) were print ads but the scale appears to be amenable for use with a variety of stimuli.