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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

Self-Efficacy (Low)

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that he/she is not capable of rectifying a particular problem and preventing it from re-occurring.  The implication is that the person is responsible for causing the problem.  The scale is called "low" here to distinguish it from a companion measure in the study by Duhachek, Agrawal, and Han (2012) that focused on "high" self-efficacy.