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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

Spontaneity of the Behavior

Five, six-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a behavior of his/hers as not being routine, planned, or anticipated. The behavior investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the behavior was recreational shopping.