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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Seven-point uni-polar items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person reports experiencing an emotion composed of distressed and altruistic sorts of feelings.